Your unemployment eligibility will vary based on where you live. Each state in the country administers its own unemployment insurance or unemployment compensation program, otherwise referred to as UI or UC.
The UC program is run as a partnership between federal and state governments. As a result, federal laws establish many of the general requirements for the program. One of the most important unemployment qualifications, for example, is that you can only receive benefits if you were fired or let go through no fault of your own. This rule applies no matter which state you live or work in.
When wondering how to qualify for unemployment, you will need to consider your state’s laws for the specific eligibility requirements. The federal government ensures that states conform to the general rules of the UI program. However, states oversee their own eligibility criteria, provisions for disqualification and benefit award amounts. Below, learn more about the unemployment requirements you must meet before making your first claim for benefits.
While the specific unemployment qualifications can vary based on where you live, most states require that you meet a few basic criteria. You can only qualify for unemployment if all of the following apply:
In general, you can only meet the requirements for unemployment if you have lost your job through no fault of your own. Each state has its own standards when defining what it means to lose your job through “no fault of your own.” You can usually qualify if you lost your job due to a layoff or other factors that are out of your control. Reasons that may disqualify you include, being fired for reasonable cause (such as misconduct), voluntarily quitting your job, retiring or losing your job due to your involvement in a labor dispute. Your unemployment eligibility will also end if you refuse a reasonable job offer while unemployed.
There are some exceptions to the unemployment rules for quitting or losing your job. In most cases, you can still submit a claim if you quit or were fired, but some state UI offices will automatically contest your claim if you are unemployed for one of these reasons. If you quit or were fired, the circumstances surrounding your job loss will need to be reviewed carefully, but it does not always mean benefits will be denied.
Furthermore, you will usually not be eligible for unemployment if you are on a leave of absence or are unable to work due to an illness or taking care of a family member. This is because you can only qualify for unemployment if you are permanently separated from your job and are immediately available to accept new employment. A leave of absence does not count as a permanent separation and most states do not consider you “ready to accept employment” if you are not able to work due to an illness or a family obligation. In any case, keep in mind that these requirements can vary based on where you live, as policies and rules for ineligibility differ from one state to the next.
When asking who qualifies for unemployment, it is important to note that an employee must work for a minimum number of weeks or receive a minimum amount of wages in order to be eligible for benefits. This requirement is put in place to ensure that workers who are genuinely involved in the workforce can receive the benefits that they have worked to earn. Employees who have not been in the workforce long enough or recently enough cannot benefit from UI because they have not contributed to the same amount as workers who have been employed for a longer period.
Related Article: Unemployment Resources
The amount of time you need to work in order to meet the unemployment requirements is referred to as a “base period.” In most states, you can only qualify for unemployment if you worked during four of the last five quarters prior to submitting a claim for unemployment. In other words, most states require that you worked for a specified, minimum time during the last 12 to 15 months.
When considering your unemployment eligibility, it is important that you earned enough wages during your base period. Remember that each state has its own wage requirements, which means you must contact your state UI office to learn the exact wage amounts required. In general, your state will require that the amount you earned during your entire base period is at least 1.5 times higher than the amount you earned during your highest-earning quarter within your base period. Each state has its own formula for determining the minimum amount of wages you must have per quarter and in your base period overall.
In any case, your wages must come from an employer who pays unemployment taxes to the federal government. Most employers fall under this requirement.
Almost all workers who earn a wage or salary are eligible for unemployment when they lose their jobs through no fault of their own. However, there are a few exceptions. First, railroad workers receive coverage through a separate program. Second, recent ex-servicemembers as well as federal civilian employees are protected under federal programs rather than receiving compensation directly from state funds.
When asking who qualifies for unemployment, it is important to note that not all workers count as “employees.” Independent contractors do not meet the requirements for unemployment. That is because withholdings such as income tax and unemployment insurance are not deducted from an independent contractor’s earnings.
Related Article: USAJOBS